Ventilators cause pressure ulcers

Ventilators cause pressure ulcers

Ventilators cause pressure ulcers


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Trauma wounds are usually the result of an accident. The group comprises everything from the minor “everyday” cut, graze, scrape, scratch, cut, gash or tear to major life-threatening injuries sustained in e.g. road accidents or bomb blasts.

Trauma wounds differ fundamentally from surgical wounds performed under sterile conditions and from pressure injuries and venous leg and diabetic foot ulcers that usually all originate internally and develop in the individual’s domestic environment with relatively familiar microbes. Trauma wounds are typically contaminated by their very nature.

Because trauma wounds are caused by a usually non-sterile object, these wounds have a high risk of contamination with both dirt, foreign bodies and microbes. Depending on the situation, the microbes can be of a truly dangerous nature. Examples of this can be bomb blasts where unknown microbes from large areas of the environment are forcefully pressurised deep into the soft tissue or bites (human and animal) where the aggressor’s mouth microbiota determines the microbes introduced into the wound site. Contagious diseases can be passed on via bites and truly pathogenic infections can occur. A “truly pathogenic infection” in this context would be an infecting agent unknown to the body’s immune system and a microbe not found naturally on or in the skin. Truly pathogenic infective agents need to be removed. If there is a risk of infection with a pathogenic microbe, the wound should be cleaned with an antiseptic such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) whilst guidelines for its safe use is adhered to. An antiseptic should generally not be used for prolonged periods of time. After cleaning with hydrogen peroxide, the wound should be washed thoroughly with clean water. Amicapsil supports the immune system in fighting unwelcome microbes and Amicapsil should therefore be used on a trauma wound from it has stopped bleeding in order to prevent and/or reduce infection and to save as much soft tissue as possible and maximise tissue regeneration. (MPPT will do no harm on a bleeding wound, but it will not provide much benefit either because excessive blood prevents MPPT from working.)

Because Amicapsil reinforces the body’s attempts to recover, it allows an orderly wound healing process that progresses forward optimally. This means better tissue preservation, faster tissue regeneration, fewer complications and fewer wounds becoming chronic. To the patient, this means faster recovery, less impact of the trauma during and after recovery, e.g. more conservative amputations, as well as a higher chance of survival.

Many everyday wounds happen in our environment and do not involve truly pathogenic microbes. These wounds should be cleaned thoroughly from any dirt or foreign bodies preferably using plenty of tap water. Even if there is no visible dirt, the area should be washed thoroughly with clean water – no cleaning solutions - and Amicapsil applied as soon as the bleeding has stopped. This will prevent an infection and support a healthy healing process.

The reason for recommending not to use antiseptics in the cleaning of “everyday” wounds is that the antiseptics are toxic (act like poison) to the human cells at much lower concentrations than those used clinically. This means that whilst they may kill some microbes (good and bad indiscriminately) they will also kill some of the cells in the wound that could have survived and consequently make the wound bigger. Also, when used after the immediate cleaning following the accident, they will kill new cells that the body has generated and is generating in order to regenerate the lost tissue and close the wound. Their use is therefore counterproductive. Furthermore, depending on the antiseptic chosen, it may penetrate the human cells and remain inside acting as a toxic for up to several days. This is for example the case with chlorhexidine and PHMB. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is the least harmful of the antiseptics as the body uses it in some of its own processes and therefore has the means required to break it down (in limited amounts).

Because trauma wounds are at high risk of infection, they also constitute a high risk of septicaemia if the infection is not removed.

In the UK 46,000 people die from sepsis annually, .e. one person every 12 minutes (source NHS).

In the US, the annual number of deaths caused by sepsis is 270,000, i.e. one person every 2 minutes (source CDC).

A wound infection is therefore a serious risk factor and its swift removal is as matter of urgency and priority.

Amicapsil removes wound infections 60% quicker than antibiotics and antiseptics.

In the US alone, at least 2 million people get an antibiotic resistant infection and at least 23,000 people die each year. These numbers are from 2013 (source CDC).

Amicapsil removes antimicrobial resistant wound infections, such as MRSA. Furthermore, Amicapsil will not contribute to antimicrobial resistance / AMR.

Prevent infection:
Amicapsil should be used on a trauma wound from the point bleeding has stopped till the wound is granulating and no part of the wound is showing signs of infection.

Remove infection:
Amicapsil should be used on an infected trauma wound until exudate, smell and pain has disappeared, and the wound is granulating.

In a clinical study, Amicapsil removed the infection from acute wounds in less than half the time (3 days versus 7 and 8 days) compared to an antibiotic and an antiseptic. It also cut the number of days the patient needed to remain in hospital by over one third (41%).

Trauma wounds are often classified according to the way in which they have damaged the body. For a short list please see below. No matter what the damage, thorough cleaning with plenty of clean water is important to remove any dirt, foreign objects and microbes. Amicapsil will help prevent an infection; remove an infection that has developed; and support granulation and tissue regeneration. Amicapsil cannot be used in combination with any other product to be applied directly on the wound (topically), e.g. antibiotic ointments and creams, silver, iodine, honey, chlorhexidine, gels, polyhexanide (PHMB) etc. Amicapsil can be used in combination with systemic (oral or injection) antibiotics.

Abrasions are scrapes caused by rubbing of the skin against a hard and/or rough surface, e.g. asphalt.
The main issue is to get all the dirt out of the tissue and next to avoid infection. As it usually doesn’t bleed excessively, abundant cleaning with water is important.
Examples are common in road accidents.

Avulsions occur when the skin tears away to reveal the tissue underneath. The main issues are to stop the bleeding, avoid infection, maintain the separated skin alive and support granulation to create optimal conditions for the skin to reattach. There may not be enough skin left to cover the area and the wound will then need to close by second intent and regenerate any missing tissue as well as skin.
Degloving injury is a type of avulsion and is named by analogy to the process of removing a glove.
Examples are common in industrial work accidents, gunshots.

Lacerations are cuts and deep tears. They are typically jagged and irregular as opposed to a surgical incision which is performed as clean lines with quick healing and minimal scarring in mind.
Examples are common in knife violence, and domestic accidents when bumping into any hard-edged object.

Puncture wounds are caused by a pointed object poking into the tissue. These wounds are sometimes deep and multi-layered. As they are often deep but don’t bleed much, abundant washing with water is called for. Because they are deep and narrow, they can be complicated to assess, and care must be taken not to overlook implication of vital cavities, organs, vessels or bone located beyond the full skin structure.
Examples are common in sharp pointed objects used for stabbing, and domestic accidents such as a foot stepping on a nail.